Jefferson County School Integration

= Audio Available Online
As publisher of the Courier-Journal in the 1970s, Barry Bingham Jr. recounts the coverage of busing through the news media in Louisville. Discusses the weekly editorial conferences and research involved in taking a position of the paper on busing.
The Louisville Times editor on the process of school desegregation in Louisville.
Fulton was 105 years old when interviewed in Columbia, Tenn. He lived more than twenty-five of his life in Louisville and discusses that period in this interview. He recounts his friends both Black and white, integration, and his work.
Biographical information of Judge Gordon and an account of the history of preliminary cases of desegregation in Louisville and in Jefferson County.
U.S. Marshall of the Western district of Kentucky describes his responsibilities and the process of carrying out school desegregation order in Louisville.
The former city editor of the Courier-Journal discusses the newspaper's coverage of Louisville's school integration process in the 1970s.
Hawkins, a former principal of Warner Junior High School describes inner city public schools in Louisville during the 1970s. As a school counselor during the 1970s she discusses the duties of teaching staff and the school board in building good school environments.
As reporter for the Louisville Times Hill describes the anti-busing sentiment in Louisville while he was assigned the police beat during desegregation in the 1970s.
Former county judge describes political and legal issues of school desegregation in Jefferson County.
Holmes described his childhood through high school years living in various rental properties in the area of Louisville around Brook and Kentucky streets. The purpose of the interview was to record his memories of living in an area that was disrupted by the construction of interstate 65. He described the homes, residents, and businesses before construction. The second part of the interview concerned the integration of Male High School. Holmes (white) was part of the third class at Male to include African Americans. He describes the white perspective on integration and on the participation of his black classmates in sit-in demonstrations downtown. Holmes then went on to describe how he has worked with an interracial group of alumni to address the tensions and concerns about what happened to Black students in the newly integrated schools.
City school board member during busing litigation describes the process of school integration in Louisville.
A parent involved in school desegregation plan describes her experience as a member of the Human Relations Network coordinated during the merger of school systems in Louisville.
Staff member of the Jefferson County School System of 1975 remembers her position as president of the state PTA board and member of the Community and Human Relations department during school integration.
Galen Martin, the executive director of the Kentucky Human Rights Commission, discusses the history of school desegregation in Louisville, Kentucky. Martin explains that he joined the commission in 1961 and had previously worked on school desegregation in Knoxville, Tennessee. He discusses the initial efforts to desegregate schools in Louisville in the 1950s, which were initially successful but later stalled. Martin criticizes the lack of teacher desegregation during this period. He also discusses the legal battles over school desegregation in the 1970s, including the role of the Kentucky Human Rights Commission in supporting a lawsuit that sought to merge the city and county school systems. Martin praises the leadership of Judge James F. Gordon in implementing a desegregation plan and criticizes local political leaders for not providing enough support. He also discusses the impact of desegregation on student achievement and housing patterns in Louisville.
Former Chief of Police of the city of Louisville remembers preparation of the city police force for school desegregation process and recounts law enforcement activities and incidents.
An African American family discusses their experiences in living in the East End during integration years.
Judge Peck, U. S. Court of Appeals, describes school segregation cases in the 6th Circuit Court from 1954, through the school desegregation suits of Jefferson County, 1975.
Parent and school bus driver remembers the first months of busing in Jefferson County.
A member of Save Our Community Schools (SOCS), an anti-busing organization describes her resistance to busing in the 1970s and her subsequent election to the Jefferson County School Board in 1974 as a result.
Lead counsel for the plaintiffs of Louisville school desegregation describes the suit against the state and discusses actions taken by the courts in the final ruling handed down in 1975.
Former Mayor of Louisville remembers the process of school integration in Jefferson County.
Legal counsel for Louisville school board remembers school integration case in Louisville.