= Audio Available Online
Civil Rights Movement in Louisville
Tachau discusses his grandparents; his parents Charles Tachau and Jean Brandeis Tachau; his father's insurance business, E.S. Tachau and Sons; the Depression of the 1930s in Louisville; his father's relationship with United States Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis; and the efforts of Brandeis and Tachau to assemble a World War I history collection at the University of Louisville. Tachau also discusses his childhood, education at Oberlin College, civic and business interests, Red Cross Hospital, and the civil rights movement in Louisville.
Civil Rights movement in Louisville
Civil Rights movement in Louisville
Civil Rights movement in Louisville
Sandra Wainwright, born in 1937, was born and raised in Louisville and remained here her entire life. She was a student at Central High School before school integration since it was the only school she was allowed to attend as a Black teenager. She went to the University of Louisville and performed in the music school at Central High School, where she met Jackie Robinson and Eleanor Roosevelt. Following schooling she was supposed to become a music teacher, however, no positions were available so she became an elementary school teacher instead. She worked at various schools in the city and retired from teaching in 1996. Topics covered in her interview include: her involvement in the late 1950s with boycotts and protests, the NAACP, her memories of racism within the city at restaurants and stores, her memories of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., her experiences as a teacher at a Black elementary school, her memories of teaching at a white school following busing for teachers, her involvement peripherally when her sister was involved in the movement in the city, her memories of the open housing movement and the impact that open housing had on her and her family.
Henry Wallace was born to Augusta Graham French Wallace and Tom Wallace, a former editor of the Louisville Courier-Journal, in 1915. He attended the University of Louisville, but was graduated from the University of Kentucky in 1938 with an A.B. in history and political science. After college Wallace worked for the Lexington (Kentucky) Leader. He later worked for papers in Ohio and Puerto Rico. Wallace served in military intelligence early in World War II, but in 1943 he began a hitch in the merchant marine which lasted until the end of the war. In 1948 Wallace went to Cuba, where he worked for the Havana Daily Post and the Havana Herald, English language newspapers. While in Cuba Wallace also did freelance photographic work for Life magazine. He later worked for Time as a full-time reporter, covering Paris, Tangiers, and the Middle East. Wallace returned to Louisville in 1956 to manage his family's farm near Prospect. After the death of his parents, Wallace became active in civil rights, working for passage of public accommodations and open housing ordinances in Louisville.
Most of the interview focuses on Murray Atkins Walls, although her husband, John Walls, is also an active participant. They were both involved in civil rights activities in Louisville and so share many experiences. Mrs. Walls discusses her childhood and youth in Indiana and compares her experiences in Louisville and Indianapolis. She describes her work in Kaufman's Department store's personnel department during World War II, and particularly focuses on Mr. Harry Schacter, the head of Kaufman-Strauss department store. She also gives an account of the integration of Girl Scouting in Louisville, which began in approximately 1957, following the Brown decision. The Walls discuss their efforts to integrate the Louisville Free Public Library, which had maintained separate branches for whites and African Americans. They discuss meeting with the library board of trustees and their interactions with the head of the library, Mr. Brigham, as well as the attitudes of Mayor Wilson Wyatt, who appointed the first African American to the library board. They also discuss the attitudes expressed in the Courier-Journal. They discuss black-owned newspapers and the barriers that African Americans faced in education and in housing. The Walls discuss the integration of dining areas and department stores, as well as residential areas. They discuss differences in attitudes between their generation, which they saw as working patiently toward improving their situation, and the generation of youth working for civil rights in the 1960s and 1970s. They discuss the dangers faced by African Americans in Mississippi in the 1930s and 1940s. The Walls discuss Dr. Walls' involvement in picketing with the NAACP, and the impact that she and Dr. Walls had on the lives of young people.
Art Walters, born in 1918 in Magnolia, Kentucky, moved to Louisville following his time in the Army. He was drafted into the army while attending Kentucky State College, an all Black school, in his junior year. He served in the Army Corps of Engineers and was first stationed at Fort Bellview, Virginia. He was commissioned to Second Lieutenant and served the rest of his twenty years in the service as a commissioned officer and served in the Second World War and during the Korean War. Following his retirement from the army, he was approached by the Urban League where they hired him as the Industrial Relations Secretary, later changed to the Director of Economic Development and Employment, and Director of Education and Youth Incentive. He worked with the Urban League from 1963 until he retired. Topics covered in the interview include: his time in the army, his hiring with the Urban League, the projects and programs that he worked on in both roles including the On The Job Training Program and the Labor Education Advancement program, the cooperation and work between the Urban League and other groups within Louisville, the role that the Urban League played in busing, the anti-busing demonstrations that took place, the change in the Urban League over the years, the general philosophy and make up of the Urban League, their approach to securing opportunity, strengths and weaknesses, and his involvement outside of the Urban League during his time in Louisville.
Hal Warheim, born in 1931 in Hanover, Pennsylvania, moved to Louisville during the Civil Rights Movement to work at Louisville Presbyterian Seminary as the chair of Christianity and Society. Prior to that, Warheim had been living in New York, Providence, Rhode Island, and many other places as he got his education in religion and sociology. Upon arriving in Louisville, he became involved in the open accommodations movement on the periphery, as it had mostly finished by the time he was here, but continued to stay involved with open housing in the city. The location of the seminary allowed him the opportunity to attend meetings of the NAACP or the Urban League downtown before it moved out to Cherokee Park. He served on the board of the Kentucky Civil Liberties Union as their Minority Relations Chair. He began to get involved with the marches and demonstrations that took place downtown, where he'd either be leading them or walking with them depending on the night. While he was working at the seminary, he was able to start a hunger task force as well as teach, which he did until he retired in 1994. Topics in the interview include: growing up in Hanover, his time in Europe, his education from high school to a law degree, his move to Louisville, his understandings of race relations in Louisville when he moved here, discussion of the KCLU and the board including strategy meetings, the open housing marches and demonstrations, his memories of people such as A.D. King, Anne Braden, and Hosea Williams among others, the influence that him being white had on his participation and the reaction it garnered, his students reaction at seminary to the activism that he did, and his involvements outside of the open housing movement.