Segregation

= Audio Available Online
1132
Dr. Love was a U of L professor and administrator, and sister of civil rights leader Whitney Young, Jr. Dr. Love discusses her parents, Laura and Whitney Young, Sr., their lives and involvement with Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville, Kentucky. Dr. Love and her brother were born in Lincoln Ridge, while her father was a teacher at Lincoln Institute, and she discusses the education they received there, and the atmosphere of safety and support that was fostered at Lincoln Institute. She describes her father's tenure as principal. She describes her experiences at Kentucky State, and also discusses her brother's emergence as a leader there. She recounts his subsequent service in the Army during World War II, where he discovered his ability to negotiate; specifically, he realized his ability to negotiate better conditions for his fellow black soldiers. She relates his educational experiences following his return to the States, and his involvement in a Harvard-based think tank. She discusses his involvement with the Urban League, and his relationships with those who chose different approaches to furthering the equal rights of African Americans. She describes the role of the Black Panthers and the riots, particularly in Detroit, in drawing some supporters to the Urban League. She also gives her perspective on the University of Louisville, which she came to in 1966 as a GE scholar. Dr. Love was quickly identified as a skilled negotiator, and she became involved in working with students, including the students who eventually took over the office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences in 1969. She offers criticism of the University of Louisville at that time (and in the 1970s) for failing to recruit and support black students and faculty. She does commend President Miller for his support of programs for students needing skill-building work. She gives her assessment of area public schools, and the possible reasons for their shortcomings. Dr. Love also headed the Lincoln Institute at the end of its days, from 1964 to 1966, and she discusses that experience. She recounts its closing, its brief life as a school for gifted and talent students, and its rebirth as the Whitney M. Young Job Corps Center. She discusses briefly the origins and role of the Lincoln Foundation.
842
Dr. Parrish discusses his father, Charles H. Parrish, Sr., who was a Baptist minister and president of Simmons University, a black Baptist college in Louisville. Parrish also discusses his own life and work, including his time teaching at Simmons, at Louisville Municipal College (University of Louisville's college for African Americans under segregation), and finally at the University of Louisville after the Municipal College closed and UofL integrated. Dr. Parrish was the only member of Municipal's faculty who was offered an appointment at UofL following LMC's closure, becoming UofL's first African American faculty member. He describes this experience as well as his ongoing research interests.
2213
School desegregation in Louisville.
973
Dr. Rabb discusses his early life and education in Mississippi. He speaks of his experiences as a student at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, comparing race relations in his hometown to those in Nashville. He also discusses student activism at Fisk while he was a student. He describes his medical education at Meharry Medical College, and his internship at Kansas City General Hospital Number 2, the segregated public hospital for blacks in Kansas City, Missouri. Dr. Rabb practiced in Shelbyville, Kentucky from 1930 to 1946, and he discusses his practice there, including his relationships with the white physicians in town. Rabb left Shelbyville for Louisville, and he discusses the difficulties that led him to make that move. He talks about his move to Louisville and the support (in the form of office space) he received from Dr. C. Milton Young, Jr. He goes on to discuss his work at Red Cross Hospital, and how he came to be the first African American admitted for post-graduate training at Louisville General Hospital. He describes other areas of integration, including the University of Louisville and its athletic programs. He talks about his leadership role in Louisville's Human Relations Commission, particularly in the area of integrating the police force. He describes his own encounters with racism, the changes he's seen over time, and his role in the sit-ins in Louisville in 1960. He also talks about the integration of public housing. He notes that his proudest achievement is his involvement with the NAACP; he was also a founder of the Kentucky Civil Liberties Union.
1126
Mrs. Ray discusses her early life and upbringing in Tennessee as well as her life in Louisville. Mrs. Ray moved to Louisville in 1934 and attended Louisville Municipal College (LMC). She discusses her education both at LMC and at the University of Louisville. She describes many "inconsistencies" as she calls them -- situations where African Americans were not treated the same as whites. She also discusses the civil rights movement, which she says she was not a direct part of.
2214
School desegregation in Louisville.
652
Vivian Stanley discusses her career as a social worker and her life with Frank Stanley, Sr., editor, manager, and publisher of the Louisville Defender. She describes events and programs that she and the newspaper were involved in, including Clothe-A-Child and the annual Exposition organized by the Louisville Defender. She also discusses Frank Stanley, Sr.'s personality and civic and political involvement, and the management of the paper after his death. Mr. Stanley had two sons, Frank Jr. and Kenneth, and she also provides some information on their lives.
1182
Mr. Stewart, business manager for Local 576 of the Laborers' International Union of North America discusses segregation in education in Tennessee where he grew up, talks about his growing awareness of labor unions, how he came to Louisville and how he became the first black foreman at a construction company there. He reflects on the evolution of the construction industry and particularly describes the place of black laborers within the industry. He talks about women in construction, training opportunities for young people to enter the field and his work with Local 576 of the Laborers' International Union. The interview concludes with a discussion of health and pension benefits provided by Stewart’s union.
1242
Early life in Alabama at Tuskegee High School and Miles Memorial College. Family moved to Kentucky. Contact with the L&N began through older brother Fred. Hired by EO Stocker for dining car position at 10th and Broadway location. Sent to Cincinnati to learn how to conduct Pullman service. Stewart provided all clothes except for black bow tie. Soldier specials, inspectors and meal tickets from officer in charge. Drafted in 1943. Returned to L&N after World War II. Proud of reputation for best dining car service in the United States. Friendship with important people. Businessmen's train from Birmingham to Nashville then Pullman from Louisville to New York. Stewart knew their likes and dislikes. Attendant on political specials for Presidents Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, and former presidential candidate Thomas E. Dewey. Procedure for preparing special trains. Special security measures for the safety of the passengers. Lady Bird Johnson special. Mr Long: head of transportation for the White House. Makeup of passengers on the trains. Insights on Alabama race relations. Race relations at the L&N and methods of adapting. Before and after unions: sleeping on floor or cots in dining car. Black coach for most black passengers; some runs, blacks not allowed on dining cars at all. Conditions of black coach and exceptions of certain blacks riding Pullman (on standby). L&N policy after the Civil Rights Law of 1964. Positive example of President Hill's actions during the segregated years in regard to Dr. Boyd of the Baptist Publishing House in Nashville. People taking advantage of the L&N's excellent dining car service. How Mr. Stewart was able not to become bitter over racial slurs, etc. Early experiences on Atlanta streetcar gave Mr. Stewart guide for handling racial slurs, etc. Personal settlements of disagreements with management. Reasons for passing up opportunity to become first black steward for the L&N. An important consideration was the loss in seniority in changing from waiter-in-charge to steward. Job security: national union salary negotiations - men drawing full salary then no work when passenger service declined. Murphy House was opened up to compensate for lack of service opportunities. Discord caused by of non-dining car duties assigned at the Murphy House. Stewart's steps to see that the national union aware of his grievances. Unsatisfactory working conditions on Amtrak plus other considerations led to Stewart's resignation from L&N. Discussion of events leading to decision to resign Jan 2, 1973. Felt there was policy of trying to turn one black against another. Deals with Louie Stewart's father HP Stewart (born 1876), who was the son of slaves. HP Stewart was one of two blacks in Alabama to hold a lifetime teaching certificate at the time Governor Patterson invited all certificate holders to a reception in Montgomery (approximately 1939). An interesting account of this man's contribution to black education in Alabama.
968
Dr. Walls discusses practicing medicine in the black community in Louisville from 1918 until his retirement. He recounts his work with the Falls City Medical Society, Red Cross Hospital, and the integration of the Jefferson County Medical Society in 1953. (Note: Red Cross Hospital changed its name to "Community Hospital" in 1972.)